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American Express Technology

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In the world of React JS, render callbacks are emerging as a powerful alternative to higher-order components (HOCs). But just what is a render callback? And why should you avoid using one of the most popular implementations of a render callback known as Function as Child Components? I’ll introduce what I believe are two better solutions that I call “Function as Prop Components” and Component Injection.

First some background. In JavaScript, functions are first-class citizens. They are merely objects and thus you can pass them around at will, even as parameters to other functions. This is one of the most powerful features of the language.

Take a look at the example below. Notice that we create a function foo which takes a callback function as a parameter. When we call foo , it turns around and “calls back” to the passed-in function.

As you can see, foo used the callback function to complete a portion of a string. In the React world, a render callback works the same way, but returning a portion of the rendered markup.

A Function as Child Component (or FaCC) is a pattern that lets you you pass a render function to a component as the children prop. It exploits the fact that you can change what you can pass as children to a component. By default, children is of type ReactNodeList (think of this as an array of JSX elements). It’s what we all are used to when placing JSX within other tags.

When you use a FaCC, instead of passing JSX markup, you assign children as a function.

In this example, the Foo component would look something like this.

As you can see, this is nearly identical to the initial example that I gave of a callback function.

There is an excellent article that explains Function as Child Components beautifully. While I think there are better alternatives to FaCCs, the author does a fine job of explaining them.

Now let’s look at a more advanced example of a FaCC. This one is based on reactpatterns example of a render callback.

Then you could use it as follows.

As you can see above, children is “overloaded” and passed to WindowWidth as a function instead of being a ReactNodeList as nature intended. The WindowWidth component’s render method calls this.props.children (passing it width ), which returns rendered JSX.

The real power of render callbacks can be seen in this example. WindowWidth will do all of the heavy lifting, while exactly what is rendered can change, depending on the render function that is passed.

Detection of Vibrio and Yersinia in the United States is usually a special request and requires additional media or incubation conditions. Communication with the laboratory is necessary. Laboratory reports should indicate which of the enteric pathogens would be detected. Laboratories are encouraged to provide enteric pathogen isolates to their public health laboratory and/or the CDC for pulsed-field gel analysis or whole-genomic sequencing for national surveillance purposes. Culture methods must be used for test of cure.

Selective use of multiplex NAATs for stool pathogens is very sensitive and, when positive for reportable agents, should either be cultured to recover the isolate or the stool provided to public health laboratories to culture, for epidemiologic follow-up.

Culture independent methods are becoming increasingly available. Nucleic acid amplification assays vary from singleplex to highly multiplexed assays. It is imperative to communicate with the laboratory to determine what organisms are detected. Culture independent methods can detect pathogens in as little as 1–5 hours compared to the 24–96 hours often required for culture. These assays are reported to be more sensitive than culture and have resulted in much higher rates of detection [ 144 ]. Highly multiplexed assays allow for the detection of mixed infections, where the importance of each pathogen is unclear, and they may allow for the detection of pathogens, such as enteroaggregative E. coli or sapovirus, where the indication for therapy is unclear. Culture-independent methods should not be used as test of cure as they will detect both viable and nonviable organisms.

Botulism is an intoxication in which a protein exotoxin, botulinum toxin, produced by Clostridium botulinum causes a life-threatening flaccid paralysis. Diagnosis, while not usually confirmed by the hospital microbiology laboratory, is made by clinical criteria, allowing prompt initiation of essential antitoxin therapy. The microbiologic diagnosis is dependent upon detection of botulinum toxin in serum (in patients with wound, infant, and foodborne disease), stool (in patients with infant and foodborne disease), and gastric contents/vomitus (in patients with foodborne disease). Toxin detection is performed in many public health laboratories and at the CDC. Culture can be performed on both feces and wounds, but the yield is low and most laboratories lack the necessary expertise to isolate and identify this organism [ 145 ].

Numerous methods have been employed for the laboratory diagnosis of infection caused by Clostridium difficile. Toxigenic culture is probably the most sensitive and specific of the assays for the detection of C. difficile , although detection of a toxigenic organism is not, in itself, specific for infection. It is slow and labor intensive and not routinely performed in the community hospital setting. Compared to toxigenic culture, the cytotoxin assay has a sensitivity of 85%–90%. The cytotoxin assay requires 24–48 hours and is also labor intensive. Thus, toxin detection by either enzyme immunoassay (EIA) or immunochromatographic methods are widely used in clinical practice. These assays have reported sensitivity of 70%–85% but are significantly faster with results available in <2 hours. Utilization of an assay that detects both toxin A and toxin B improves the sensitivity. Glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) antigen assays are sensitive but have poor specificity. NAATs for the detection of C. difficile have reported sensitivity of 93%–100%. To reduce turnaround time, reduce costs, and improve accuracy of C. difficile –associated disease, some laboratories employ an algorithm that utilizes GDH as a rapid screening test, followed by (or simultaneous to, as part of the same test platform), EIA for toxin A and B detection with or without cytotoxin testing or NAAT to arbitrate discrepant GDH and EIA toxin results. These algorithms allow for both the rapid reporting of most negative specimens and the sensitivity of cytotoxin testing or NAAT, but could result in delays depending on the laboratory testing algorithm employed [ 146–148 ]. NAAT detects viable and nonviable organisms. To decrease the identification of colonized patients, some laboratories are performing both NAAT tests and tests to detect toxin production. Diarrheal stool specimens (not formed stools or rectal swabs) are required for the diagnosis of C. difficile disease (not colonization). The specimen should be loose enough to take the shape of the container. Formed stools should be appropriately rejected by the laboratory but with the proviso that formed stools from patients with ileus, or potential toxic megacolon, as noted by the physician, should be tested. When testing is limited to patients not receiving laxatives and with unexplained and new-onset diarrhea (≥3 unformed stools in 24 hours), NAAT alone, or toxin EIA as part of a multistep algorithm (GDH plus toxin, GDH plus toxin arbitrated by NAAT, or NAAT plus toxin) are the recommended test options. When there are no institutionally agreed upon limiting criteria for stool submission, toxin EIA, as part of a multistep algorithm as defined above, is recommended, not NAAT testing alone. Repeat testing of patients previously positive as a “test of cure” is not appropriate. Repeat testing of patients negative by NAATs should not be performed for at least 6 days [ 148 , 149 ].

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